Militarization and its most affected victims (Girls)
Military camps are frequently found around school buildings or inside these buildings and campuses, and this militarization is occurring on both sides of Kashmir's disputed boundaries (AJK&IOK). The militarization of these places can have a detrimental psychological effect on kids, which can increase dropout rates. This is the case in the Indian-occupied Kashmir valley, where many kids are afraid to go to school because of the military camps nearby.
According to a 2013 study by the Working Group on Peace, Conflict, and Education at Colombia University, 79 percent of the military bases were located within one kilometer or less of the schools that were being looked at. Even some of these schools had borders that met those of the camps. Due to the proximity of the camps that were likely to be the target of explosive devices and the military forces there, it was stated that the students in these schools felt frightened and afraid. The kids are aware that they are more vulnerable to shelling because of this proximity.
Impact on girls
The explosive violence in the region has also had additional impacts on girls, which has had a negative effect on the efforts of both countries to improve access to education for females. India launched the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) program in 2004 with the goal of establishing residential schools for females in all areas with a low female literacy rate.
The national government also made the decision to provide cash incentives and scholarships for girls born into low-income homes. The Malala Education Fund was established in 2013 to support girls' education with assistance from the AJK Department of Education and UNESCO in Pakistan's AJK, which lies across the valley. The money will build boundary walls for vulnerable schools and give lunch and stationery to female elementary school students.
Despite recent initiatives by India and Pakistan to support girls' education, the conflict in Kashmir has made the gap between boys' and girls' educational attainment even more pronounced. When schools are in regions where there has been shelling, many parents perceive an increased risk for their girls. In urban regions, 296,535 females were enrolled in school from 2013–2014. In 2015–16, this number dropped to 96,896 females, representing a 67 percent decline in the number of girls enrolled in school.
Girls are more at risk of sexual violence, abuse, and other types of harassment because of the proximity of military camps and the presence of army personnel. As a result of girls trying to escape this, dropout rates for females in these institutions continue to grow.
All children need to feel secure at school and have access to a safe education, but girls who live in violent places of the world need it the most. In addition to teaching, schools in these communities should offer normality, stability, and safety to girls, enabling them to better deal with the broader harm that the area experiences.